Let's Have the Water Talk

When I was a phone representative for Healthmasters, a frequent question I would get was “What type of water should I drink?”, so let’s talk about it.

Pure water is also imperative for human health. Water consists of nearly 60% of the human body, and if you consider water molecules, humans are almost 99% water molecules. Further, most humans can survive for up to three weeks without food but can only go a few days without water. However, in America, we have tap water infrastructure that delivers water right into your home, but the safety of tap water is ranked way too high.

Since the first industrial revolution, the environment has mainly been contaminated by an extensive series of toxic compounds, including pesticides, herbicides, heavy metals, chlorine, fluoride, radioactive compounds, and pharmaceuticals. What a lot of people do not seem to understand is these compounds do not have an expiration date; if a pesticide permeates the ground deep enough from rain and enters the groundwater system, there is not a clock that begins ticking down from one-year that will signal when the pesticide will expire or disappear – these compounds stay in water for decades and even centuries. As a result, much of today’s drinking water is contaminated with these compounds, and this explicitly includes tap water.

Take the Democrat-driven city of Flint, Michigan, for example. This is a great scenario of why tap water is not nearly as safe as we think. Flint’s government regulated tap water system was highly contaminated with toxic levels of lead, but the Flint leaders insisted the water was safe, even though it was causing high levels of lead in the blood of the city’s children [1].

Now, it is easy to say, “Well, that is not my city.” While you may be correct, this is an illusion of safety; the chances of your tap water not being contaminated with a single contaminate is slim to none.

Lead and Fluoride

The most common tap water contaminants are lead and fluoride. Studies have shown that low-dose lead exposure can cause brain damage and developmental problems in young people, and even the World Health Organizations acknowledges lead as a toxin [2-5]. Lead leaches into the tap water system because of corroded pipes, which are found in older towns and cities across the country.

Fluoride is another highly toxic compound. Yet, generally, people have a very different viewpoint and think fluoride helps with tooth decay. I will let you believe fluoride helps with tooth decay. However, you should also be aware that fluoride increases the risk of dental fluorosis, which is correlated with increased cavities, periodontal disease, and other dental issues. Cities with optimally fluoridated water have statistically higher occurrences of these complications [6-10]. Further, if you are okay with an increased risk of dental fluorosis, you still have to acknowledge the many studies that have linked fluoride consumption to neurological damage, increased incidences of learning disabilities, and decreased IQ scores [10-22].

A will quickly review and summarize some of these studies. If you believe these statements are made out of context, I invite you to read the research; everything is cited and referenced.

A 2008 study found that children who live in a fluorosis area have five times higher odds of developing low IQ than those who live in a nonfluorosis area or a slight fluorosis area [17].

A 2015 study empirically demonstrated an association between more widespread exposure to fluoridated water and increased ADHD prevalence in United States children and adolescents [13].

A 2010 study found that fluoride has toxic effects on the central nervous system [12].

A 2019 study concluded, “aluminum and fluoride are very noxious environmental pollutants that interfere with the proper functions of the brain neurons and their combination together aggravates their hazard” [15].

A 2008 meta-analysis concluded, “Exposure to high levels of fluoride may adversely influence children's intelligence development” [18].

Further, fluoride has also been shown to lower iodine levels, disrupt thyroid function, burden the kidneys, worsen symptoms of autoimmune disease, cause considerable bone damage, and increase risks during pregnancy [23-39].


Disinfectant by-products and chemicals like chlorine, bromine, and iodine are commonly used industrial disinfectants, and water treatment facilities rely on them, especially chlorine, to sterilize drinking water in public water systems.

Trihalomethanes are another class of chemicals that are present in public drinking water and have been linked to colon and rectal cancers and congenital disabilities, low birth weight, and miscarriage [40]. In a 2007 report, researchers found that people who drank water with trihalomethane concentrations that were higher than 21 parts per billion has a 50% increase in bladder cancer risk [41]. The current EPA limit for total trihalomethanes in drinking water is 1 part per billion

Further, a 2007 study found that there are 600 disinfection by-products in drinking water, with many of them being genotoxic and carcinogenic [42]. What is particularly concerning is that there are limited studies that examine the biological effects that combinations of these chemicals have on the human body; most research examines them individually.

Radioactive Compounds

If the chemical soup is not enough, drinking water and water, in general, is contaminated with radionuclides, or radioactive compounds. This nuclear waste is from atomic weapons tests of the last century to meltdowns at Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima. These radionuclides have found their way into the environment and food supply.

Although people living on the East Coast may believe they are safe from the effects of the Fukushima incident, they should think again. The disaster at Fukushima compelled the Japanese government to authorize the dumping of 777,000 tons of water tainted with tritium, the radioactive version of hydrogen, into the Pacific Ocean. This nuclear waste eventually makes its way into the larger hydrosphere through atmospheric condensation and into groundwater supplies throughout the world, and it does not take a meltdown incident to release radiation into the environment.

High levels of tritium have recently been found in the groundwater around the Miami, Florida nuclear complex at Turkey Point, which is a few hours south of where I live [43-45]. It is believed the contamination is caused by seepage from underground cooling canals, which could happen in any nuclear complex around the country.


Small amounts of medicines are in public drinking water, including antibiotics, hormones, mood stabilizers, and other drugs. An Associated Press investigation found that drinking water supplies in 24 major metropolitan areas were tainted with drugs [46]. Effects of drugs are so potent that in the late 1990s, researchers found that fish in the Potomac River were found with both male and female sex organs. It was soon uncovered that phytoestrogens in the water were affecting the hormones of these fish [47].

Because drugs are xenobiotics, they do not biodegrade well, and like pesticides, a wide range of pharmaceuticals can be found in a minute but still significant quantities in environmental and municipal water samples. Thus, the issue of second-hand pharmaceutical exposure needs to be further investigated.

Fluorosilicic Acid

This compound of a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry and is heavily contaminated with toxins and heavy metals, including arsenic, lead, and cadmium [48]. Most concerning, the compound is being used in some municipalities as an alternative for fluoridation.

Fluorosilicic acid (FSA) binds to other compounds, meaning as it travels through lead-tainted pipes, it binds to lead [48].

The Website PolyProcessing.com summarized the safety of FSA very well:

“FSA also interacts negatively with metals to produce a flammable hydrogen gas, meaning a stainless steel chemical storage tank is not a viable option. It attacks glass, eats through concrete, and poses a serious storage concern. Before rotomolded plastic became a viable storage option, fiberglass tanks, constructed with a resin-rich veil, was often used for storage. The resin-rich veil, however, is often only ⅛” of chemical barrier protection from the incompatible fiberglass (chopped glass) structure itself. Since FSA eats glass, it’s actually incredibly dangerous to store FSA in something that only provides a minimal barrier of safety from a glass-made structural support container.” [49]

This sounds like something I would not want to drink. If you do not believe this compound put into drinking water supplies, Google “cities that have FSA in drinking water” to see how it is hailed as a good thing [50].

In a 254-page letter to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), J. William Hirzy, Ph.D., a former senior scientist at the EPA and current Chemist in Residence at American University, College of Arts and Sciences, accused the practice of fluoridating water with fluorosilicic acid (in the form hydrofluorosilicic acid) as an “extremely profitable hazardous waste disposal sites for the phosphate fertilizer manufacturing industry” [51].

Chemical Pesticides

Anytime you see someone spraying their yard with chemicals, those chemicals permeate the ground and leach into the groundwater drinking supplies. Again, these chemicals do not expire or disappear after a point in time.

These chemicals include the memorable dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dimethyl tetrachloro terephthalate (DCPA), and glyphosate.


This insecticide was made famous because it nearly decimated America’s bald eagle population and as a result, was banned in the 1970s. However, the chemical was known for its biopersistance and still poses a risk to Americans. Also, DDT remains legal for use in many countries, and DDT molecules can travel large distanced. DDT causes an enormous range of adverse health effects, and the compound is acknowledged to be carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer [52]. See reference [52] for a document about DDT’s health consequences published by Cornell University.


This anti-fungus chemical was used to prevent fungus growth on cereal crops and received a lot of attention in the 1970s. It is no longer used in the United States; however, it is still used in other countries, and studies have detected HCB at measurable levels in air, water, soil, and food samples in recent years.

Studies have found that 30 years after acute exposure, breast milk of affected women still contain up to 150 times the allowable limit for consumption [53-56].


Unlike DDT and HCB, DCPA is still legal to use in the United States as an herbicide for grass and weed control. In 1999, the compound received attention from the EPA, and the EPA found that DCPA degradates were found in concentrations as high as 15% in several states, primarily where agriculture was prominent [57].

DCPA is also very biopersistent and does not degrade quickly. The toxin can biopersist in fatty animal tissue and negatively impact multiple regions of the body, including liver, kidney, thyroid, and lungs [58].

Further, a comprehensive groundwater study conducted by the Michigan Department of Community Health to gather toxicological data determines that DCPA and its metabolites constitute a public health hazard [59].


This is a much newer herbicide and has received a lot of public attention lately. In a recent legal case, Monsanto was ordered to pay $80 million because the chemical was shown to have caused two individual’s cancer [60], and this is the first of many cases to come.

I have examined the effects of the toxin in “The Adverse Effects of Glyphosate,” so if you would like to read more, click on the article.

What Type of Water Is Best?

At the beginning of the article, I brought up a commonly asked question: “What type of water should I drink?”, so I will answer the question starting with the best to worst options.

In a perfect world, water would come from an untainted aquifer thousands of feet below the ground. This water would be filled with beneficial, naturally occurring minerals and compounds, not having been touched by the effects of modern-day humans. Other than the piping that would be used to transport the water, there would be no added chemicals or filtering, and it would be pumped directly into glass bottles, not plastic containers that contain bisphenols. However, the potential to find this divine source is slim to none, but if you can, have at it.

Second, I would recommend distilled water. Essentially, distilled water is very pure water. In theory, you can put tap water through a distillation system which converts it to steam and lets the vapor condense and precipitate. All but ten parts per million of particulates are removed, which would give you very pure water. However, distilled water has no minerals, not even beneficial ones. For this reason, distilled water is typically called dead water because it can pull minerals from your body. Therefore, I recommend remineralizing the water.

Healthmasters’ Aqua Trace was developed for this purpose. It has over 70 naturally occurring ionic trace minerals from the Great Salt Lake with 99% of the sodium removed. You can remineralize distilled water with a few drops.

Third, I would recommend reverse osmosis, which is pushing water through a filter with very, very fine holes. The reverse osmosis process is convenient because you can get a whole house system that runs all household water through the system for showers, sinks, and drinking. While reverse osmosis systems produce clean water, I would still recommend distilled first.

Most drinking water found in grocery stores is contained with industrial additives or is stored in plastics that contain bisphenols, and tap water, as explained throughout this entire article, no longer has any level of purity.


If you are interested in purchasing a water distiller, Healthmasters offers several distillation systems, with the most popular being Water Distiller Model 3200.


If you have any questions about any of the distillation systems Healthmasters offers, please feel free to call our office at 800.726.1834.



[1] https://www.usnews.com/news/best-states/michigan/articles/2017-06-14/a-timeline-of-the-water-crisis-in-flint-michigan

[2] https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/lead-poisoning-and-health

[3] https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/11/071120111526.htm

[4] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5800103/

[5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5198753/

[6] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27871895

[7] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19820737

[8] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29396763

[9] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20073427

[10] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20545827

[11] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25863844

[12] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22933830

[13] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25890329

[14] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19538017

[15] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30788699

[16] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28719878

[17] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18695947

[18] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19102839

[19] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17450237

[20] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18038039

[21] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7859263

[22] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25577494

[23] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26748264

[24] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19318504

[25] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21755305

[26] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19201548

[27] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21901432

[28] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24419046

[29] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20859737

[30] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25916575

[31] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30062462

[32] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29113295

[33] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27257137

[34] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29396777

[35] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29411324

[36] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26198134

[37] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27475026

[38] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20712257

[39] https://www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/open-letter-nutritionists-about-fluoride-deception

[40] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20833606

[41] https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15287390701459031

[42] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17980649

[43] https://www.miaminewtimes.com/news/environmentalists-fight-plan-to-keep-turkey-point-nuclear-plant-open-through-2053-10589386

[44] https://www.miamiherald.com/news/local/environment/article226860829.html

[45] https://www.ecomagazine.com/news/regulation/turkey-point-reactor-contaminating-south-florida-drinking-water

[46] https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/features/drugs-in-our-drinking-water#3

[47] https://www.fws.gov/chesapeakebay/pdf/2005-2006_final_report.pdf

[48] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24999851

[49] https://blog.polyprocessing.com/blog/proper-hydrofluorosilicic-acid-storage


[51] https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/documents/tsca_21_petition_hfsa_2013-04-22.pdf


[53] https://www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/living-battle-within-breast-milk-developmental-direction-vs-toxic-toll

[54] https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/hexachlorobenzene.pdf

[55] https://www.nrdc.org/media/2001/010522

[56] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9533502

[57] https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-09/documents/drinking_water_health_advisory_for_dacthal_and_dacthal_degradates_tpa_and_mtp.pdf


[59] https://www.michigan.gov/documents/DacthalDiAcidHealthConsult_71729_7.pdf

[60] https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/27/us/monstanto-roundup-california-verdict.html

[61] Adapted from https://www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/why-there-no-such-thing-safe-tap-water with additional research, information, and viewpoints